It was effective at visual to beyond visual range. The F-4 mounted up to four AIM-7s carried in special recesses under the fuselage. Although designed for non-maneuvering targets such as bombers, due to poor performance against fighters over North Vietnam, these missiles were progressively improved until they proved highly effective in dogfights. A disadvantage to semi-active homing was that only one target could be illuminated by the launch aircraft at a time; also, the launch aircraft had to remain pointed in the direction of the target within the azimuth of the aircraft radar, up to 60 degrees off the nose on some systems , which could be difficult or dangerous in aerial combat.
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It was effective at visual to beyond visual range. The F-4 mounted up to four AIM-7s carried in special recesses under the fuselage.
Although designed for non-maneuvering targets such as bombers, due to poor performance against fighters over North Vietnam, these missiles were progressively improved until they proved highly effective in dogfights.
A disadvantage to semi-active homing was that only one target could be illuminated by the launch aircraft at a time; also, the launch aircraft had to remain pointed in the direction of the target within the azimuth of the aircraft radar, up to 60 degrees off the nose on some systems , which could be difficult or dangerous in aerial combat. Originally intended for the straight-wing F6D Missileer and then the navalized version of the FB , it finally saw service with the Grumman F Tomcat , the only fighter capable of carrying such a heavy missile.
Phoenix was the first US fire-and-forget multiple launch radar-guided missile: one which used its own active guidance system to guide itself without help from the launch aircraft when it closed on its target.
The only reported combat successes were by Iranian Tomcats against Iraqi opponents. What was needed was Phoenix type multiple launch and terminal active capability in a Sparrow size airframe. Requirements Surface-to-air mounting shown: CATMC captive training variant By the s, the reliability of the Sparrow had improved so much from the dismal days of Vietnam that it accounted for the largest number of aerial targets destroyed in Desert Storm.
AMRAAM would eventually be the primary weapon for the F Raptor which needed to fit all its missiles in internal weapons bays like the old F Delta Darts in order to maintain a stealthy radar cross-section.
Under this agreement the U. It improves the aerial combat capabilities of U. The new missile is faster, smaller, and lighter, and has improved capabilities against low-altitude targets.
It also incorporates a datalink to guide the missile to a point where its active radar turns on and makes terminal intercept of the target. An inertial reference unit and micro-computer system makes the missile less dependent upon the fire-control system of the aircraft. Once the missile closes in on the target, its active radar guides it to intercept.
This feature, known as "fire-and-forget", frees the aircrew from the need to further provide guidance, enabling the aircrew to aim and fire several missiles simultaneously at multiple targets and perform evasive maneuvers while the missiles guide themselves to the targets. The missile also features the ability to "Home on Jamming,"  giving it the ability to switch over from active radar homing to passive homing — homing on jamming signals from the target aircraft.
Software on board the missile allows it to detect if it is being jammed, and guide on its target using the proper guidance system. The aircraft passes data to the missile just before launch, giving it information about the location of the target aircraft from the launch point and its direction and speed. The missile uses this information to fly on an interception course to the target using its built in inertial navigation system INS.
This information is generally obtained using the launching aircraft's radar, although it could come from an infrared search and tracking system IRST , from a data link from another fighter aircraft, or from an AWACS aircraft. After launch, If the firing aircraft or surrogate continues to track the target, periodic updates—such as changes in the target's direction and speed—are sent from the launch aircraft to the missile, allowing the missile to adjust its course so that it is able to close to a self-homing distance where it will be close enough to "catch" the target aircraft in the basket the missile's radar field of view in which it will be able to lock onto the target aircraft, unassisted by the launch aircraft.
Terminal stage and impact Once the missile closes to self-homing distance, it turns on its active radar seeker and searches for the target aircraft. If the target is in or near the expected location, the missile will find it and guide itself to the target from this point. The NATO brevity code "Fox 3 close" is used in this situation the pilot can say only Fox 3, but he can add a distance information: "long" for maximum range shot, "medium" for medium ranges around 15nm and close for within visual range WVR shot.
However, this tactic is considerably risky — the now-active AMRAAM will acquire and home in on the first target it sees, regardless of friend or foe. Boresight mode Apart the slave mode, there is a free guidance mode, called boresight. This mode is radar guidance-free, the missile just fires and lock the first thing he sees.
When this mode is selected, the HUD displays a circle which represent "sight" of the missile. When the pilot shots, he says "Maddog" . This mode can be used for defensive shot, i. Kill probability and tactics This unreferenced section requires citations to ensure verifiability.
General considerations The kill probability Pk is determined by several factors, including aspect head-on interception, side-on or tail-chase , altitude, the speed of the missile and the target, and how hard the target can turn. Typically, if the missile has sufficient energy during the terminal phase, which comes from being launched at close range to the target from an aircraft with an altitude and speed advantage, it will have a good chance of success.
This chance drops as the missile is fired at longer ranges as it runs out of overtake speed at long ranges, and if the target can force the missile to turn it might bleed off enough speed that it can no longer chase the target. In addition, the targets lacked missile warning systems, were not maneuvering, and were not attempting to engage the fighter that fired the AMRAAM. One of the targets was a US Army Blackhawk helicopter.
If the target is not armed with any medium or long-range fire-and-forget weapons, the attacking aircraft need only get close enough to the target and launch the AMRAAM. The launch distance depends upon whether the target is heading towards or away from the firing aircraft. In a head-on engagement, the missile can be launched at longer range, since the range will be closing fast. In this situation, even if the target turns around, it is unlikely it can speed up and fly away fast enough to avoid being overtaken and hit by the missile as long as the missile is not released too early.
It is also unlikely the enemy can outmaneuver the missile since the closure rate will be so great. In a tail-on engagement, the firing aircraft might have to close to between one-half and one-quarter maximum range or maybe even closer for a very fast target in order to give the missile sufficient energy to overtake the targets.
If the targets are armed with missiles, the fire-and-forget nature of the AMRAAM is valuable, enabling the launching aircraft to fire missiles at the target and subsequently take defensive actions. Even if the targets have longer-range semi-active radar homing SARH missiles, they will have to chase the launching aircraft in order for the missiles to track them, effectively flying right into the AMRAAM.
If the target aircraft fires missiles and then turns and runs away, those missiles will not be able to hit. Of course, if the target aircraft have long range missiles, even if they are not fire-and-forget, the fact that they force the launching aircraft to turn and run reduces the kill probability, since it is possible that without the mid-course updates the missiles will not find the target aircraft.
However the chance of success is still good and compared to the relative impunity the launching aircraft enjoy, this gives the AMRAAM-equipped aircraft a decisive edge. If one or more missiles fail to hit, the AMRAAM-equipped aircraft can turn and re-engage, although they will be at a disadvantage compared to the chasing aircraft due to the speed they lose in the turn, and would have to be careful that they are not being tracked with SARH missiles.
In this case engagement is very much down to teamwork and could be described as "a game of chicken. This assumes of course that all aircraft will detect each other. The AIMC has been steadily upgraded since it was introduced. The AIMC-7 development began in and included improvements in homing and greater range actual amount of improvement unspecified. It was successfully tested in and is currently being produced for both domestic and foreign customers.
It helped the U. This weapon will be equipped with a Ramjet engine and an IR seeker derived from the Sidewinder missile. Navy , and the U. This was unexpectedly terminated in the budget plan,  and so the future replacement is uncertain. They receive their initial guidance information from a radar not mounted on the vehicle.
Since the missile is launched without the benefit of an aircraft's speed or high altitude, its range is considerably shorter. Gates announced that the U. Interestingly enough, this missile was returned from the flight line as defective a day earlier.
At that point three launches in combat resulted in three kills, resulting in the AMRAAM being informally named "slammer" in the second half of the s. Army Black Hawk helicopters.
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