History Pre-Islamic calendar Some scholars, both Muslim [7] [8] and Western, [9] think that the pre-Islamic calendar of central Arabia was a purely lunar calendar similar to the modern Islamic calendar, differing only when the sanctity of the four holy months were postponed by one month from time to time. Others, like the medieval Muslim astronomers al-Biruni and Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi , [10] [11] and some Western scholars, [12] [13] concur that it was originally a lunar calendar, but about years before the Hijra it was transformed into a lunisolar calendar containing an intercalary month added from time to time to keep the pilgrimage within the season of the year when merchandise was most abundant for Bedouin buyers. It was not intended to establish a fixed calendar to be generally observed. The intercalation doubled the month of the pilgrimage, that is, the month of the pilgrimage and the following month were given the same name, postponing the names and the sanctity of all subsequent months in the year by one. The first intercalation doubled the first month Muharram, then three years later the second month Safar was doubled, continuing until the intercalation had passed through all twelve months of the year and returned to Muharram, when it was repeated. Support for this view is provided by inscriptions from the south Arabian pre-Islamic kingdoms of Qataban Kataban and Sheba Saba both in modern Yemen , whose lunisolar calendars featured an intercalary month obtained by repeating a normal month.

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I have not encountered this episode elsewhere. It is absent from This account appears in at least four versions, each taking up about half of a printed page or less. As for the merchants, they travel to remote regions and discuss news about you.

While reports of diplomatic contacts between the two empires abound for the early Umayyad period, they decline in the decades leading up to the Abbasid revolution and into the late 8th century. It was a standard practice for Although there is no reason with regard to its content to discard the tale as fiction, 10 the long interval between the 8th-century event and the production of accounts depicting it — over one hundred years at the least —makes it difficult to determine their reliability, a typical problem for this early period.

First, why was it significant to the writers of the accounts that the reason for the market transfer was an ambassador? Second, why was it significant that he was a Byzantine ambassador? Along with the two other explanations for the market transfer which follow, it forms a discussion which would seem most suited to the entry for the year in which the markets were, in fact, transferred.

Over half of the space preceding the ambassador account a little under two of three pages in the Leiden edition is devoted to two relatively lengthy reports the first of which narrates two separate events about non-Arab influences on the construction of the new city. Barmak and the Byzantine ambassador , on the origins of the Abbasid capital of Baghdad. The three critiques—the need for waterworks, gardens, and distance from subjects—can be seen to represent three Byzantine cultural exports which the ambassador seeks to thrust upon the caliph: urban planning, taste, and autocratic statecraft.

As for what you say about my secrets, I keep no secret from my subjects. Early consultative government was contrasted with arbitrary Abbasid rule. Perhaps it was understandable that the Umayyads, perched as they were in an old Roman city in an old Roman province, had chosen to adorn their bathhouses with images of voluptuous human forms, 53 but after the Abbasid revolution, one might have expected new vigor in enforcing Islamic moral ideals.

While some accounts ascribe the choice of the site to practical considerations, like its optimal location for trade and its fine climate, in more marvelous accounts, the site is chosen for the caliph by divine decree in the form of a prophecy. Any story related under the Abbasids concerning the origins of Baghdad would have carried considerable political and cultural significance. Leiden, ]. Beirut, Librairie orientale, Cheikho, Beirut, Imprimerie catholique, Bosworth, Clifferd E.

Gibb, Hamilton A. Kennedy, Hugh ed. Franklin eds. Le Strange, Guy, originally published : Baghdad during the Abbasid Caliphate: from contemporary Arabic and Persian sources 2nd ed. Liddell, Henry George and Scott, Robert, 9th ed. Mottahedeh, Roy P. Robinson, Chase F.


Muslim : Dommini – مـسـلـم : ضُـمِّـنـي – Official Video Clip



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